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In the Philippines, television has become all things to all people: friend, teacher, lover, mother. With the decline in local movie production, viewers now have the biggest stars of Philippine cinema in their homes every single day. The two largest TV networks now advertise themselves as kapuso (of the same heart) andkapamilya (member of the family), underscoring their intimate personal relationships with the viewers. News anchors don’t just read the day’s news, they also blast erring government officials, often without benefit of any investigation. They host public-service programs that provide everything from medical assistance to scholarships to karaoke machines (apparently a basic necessity).
In a country where about half of the population lives in poverty, TV is the easiest avenue of escape. Not only does it offer variety shows, soap operas and superhero fantasies, but it also gives away millions of cash in game shows and contests. Of course, the ultimate escape is via the new “American Idol”-type shows, in which viewers pick the winner by text-message voting. This is democracy in action: unfiltered and instantaneous
1According to the passage, which is true?
① Viewers should send instant text-messages to win a lot of cash prize.
② Buying TV sets is the easiest way to overcome the poverty in the Philippines.
③ News anchors often criticise corrupted government officials with insufficient proofs.
④ In the Philippines, TV networks air movies frequently to promote local movie industry.
2Which is implied by the underlined part?
① reliable excuse ② final destination
③ safe fire exit ④ becoming rich
Language frequently serves as an ethnic boundary marker. The native language of an individual is the primary indicator of ethnic group identity in many areas of the world. In the south-western United States, Hopi and Navajo members are readily distinguished by their language alone. However, just because two populations share a common language, it does not mean they share a common identity, any more than the fact that two populations speak different languages means that they have two distinct identities. For example, the Serbs and Croats of what was Yugoslavia speak Serbo-Croatian. They are, however, distinct and historically antagonistic ethnic groups. _____A_ ___, a person may be Irish and speak either Gaelic or English as his or her native language. The German government grants automatic citizenship to all ethnic German refugees from Eastern Europe. A difficulty in ______B______ these refugees is that many speak only Polish or Russian. Thus, one does not have to speak German to be an ethnic German.
3According to the passage, which is true?
① Hopi and Navajo members do not share a common language.
② German Citizenship is automatically granted to a person who can speak German.
③ The Serbs and Croats share a common identity because they speak the same language.
④ The native language is the most essential single indicator of ethnic group identity in every country.
4Which is the most appropriate for the blank A?
① Therefore ② Conversely
③ As a result ④ To begin with
5Which is the most appropriate for the blank B?
① lauding ② secluding
③ assimilating ④ calumniating
The human activity most destructive to the soil is overgrazing. Overgrazing causes the loss of vegetation as a result of the increase of herbivores. Any land that is cleared of vegetation becomes vulnerable to desertification. A second cause of desertification is improper irrigation. Farmers in many parts of the world divert water supplies for their crops. , one area’s gain is another area’s loss. In China’s Xinjiang Autonomous Region, for example, the building of dams and the withdrawal of water for irrigation have dried up the Tarim River. This has caused the trees and other vegetation that acted as a barrier between the Taklimakan and Kumtag deserts to die off. Now the two deserts are spreading toward each other, and they may eventually merge.
Some of the methods for stopping the advance of deserts are quite simple. Algeria, for example, has planted a green wall of trees across the edge of the Sahara to prevent more land from turning into desert. To stop the overgrazing of land, some areas are requiring the careful management of livestock. To combat deforestation, people are encouraged to less depend on wood. Simple devices such as solar cookers and wind turbines can help.
6 Which is the most appropriate for the blank?
① Instead ② However
③ Furthermore ④ In particular
7According to the passage, which is true?
① To stop desertification, people are encouraged to use alternative energy.
② Raising many animals can stop the land from desertification.
③ Tarim River dried up because the two deserts spread toward each other.
④ Algeria planted trees in the middle of the Sahara to stop more desertification.
8Which is the main idea of the passage?
① Overgrazing and irrigation are the biggest problems that have caused desertification.
② Some of the human activities have caused desertification, and there are methods to stop it.
③ Today, the amount of desert on earth is increasing, and we have to take actions to top overgrazing.
④ To stop desertification, some countries encourage people to plant trees and to less depend on wood.